Calligraphy word which means line or a line of writing in Arabic language has been used as a meaning of beautiful hand writing which is written with Arabic letters today. Calligraphy is beautiful writing art and writers are called calligraphers.
It has various kinds like Kufic, Thuluth, Naskh, Absolute, Reyhani, Tevki (Sultan’s sign), Icaze, Tafsir, Divani (Official letter of royalty), It had been used in many kinds of Arts and handcrafts like, carpet weaving, drapery, leatherworking, binding, books, ornamenting, porcelain making, amber objects making, ink making, furniture making.
Value parted with writing involved to accentuate the Calligraphy in Islamic Culture. Especially, Calligraphy had improved very well in the Ottoman culture and risen to esthetic level. Fairly, it replaced with the paintings in western pictorial art.
It was framed like a real oil painting and it has been known that high prices had been paid to famous Ottoman Calligraphers for the impresses which had been done with beautiful hand writing samples. Beautiful hand writing had been used not only on boards but also in hand writing books, imperial edicts, diplomas, inside and outside walls of mosques, friezes of various buildings, grave stones, on the daily use goods like borders of carpets, box, vase, plate.
The writing in Calligraphy is not written cursory. Each writing type has own specialties and rules which was determined finely. Along the history, famous calligraphers created writing rules time by time and specified them. The various writing types specified by their specialties like being the letters capital or small, style, gaps, adjoining some letters to each others, using some dictations.